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Indian History – Timeline

Pre 90th century BCE
4,000,000 – 100,000 BCE
A skull fragment found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that this part of Indian subcontinent might have been inhabited in the Middle Pleistocene era around 250,000 years ago. Anek R. Sankhyan describes it as “debated and conveniently interpreted as “evolved” Homo erectus or “archaic”.  Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.   The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.  Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.    Some of the Bhimbetka shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 100,000 years ago.  
Madrasian culture sites have been found in Attirampakkam (Attrambakkam=13° 13′ 50″, 79° 53′ 20″), which is located near Chennai (formerly known as Madras), Tamil Nadu.  Thereafter, tools related to this culture have been found at various other locations in this region. Bifacial handaxes and cleavers are typical assemblages recovered of this culture.  Flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools have also been found. Most of these tools were composed of the metamorphic rock quartzite.  The stone tool artifacts in this assemblage have been identified as a part of the second inter-pluvial period in India. 
Evidence for presence of Hominins with Acheulean technology 150,000–100,000 BCE in Tamil Nadu. 
Technology similar to contemporary artifacts found used by Homo sapiens in Africa found in Jwalapuram around 74000 BCE.
Paleolithic industries in South India Tamil Nadu 30,000 BCE 
90th century BCE 
9,000 BCE
Early Neolithic culture with first confirmed semi permanent settlements appeared 11000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000 years old. 
The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia’s oldest settlements  and some of its major civilisations.  
40th century BCE 
4000 BCEPhase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The civilization used an early form of the Indus signs, the so-called Indus script.
Over the course of next 1000–1500 years, inhabitants of the Civilization developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin) had elaborate urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.  The civilization depended significantly on trade, was the first civilization to use wheeled transport in form of bullock carts, and also used boats. 
27th century BCE 
2600 BCEThe cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and large parts of Afghanistan,  covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization uses the Indus script.
2600 BCEEnd of the Early Dynastic II Period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic IIIa Period in Mesopotamia.
2900 BCE – 2334 BCEMesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period.
18th century BCE 
1800 BCEAdichanallur urn-burial site in Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu. In 2004, a number of skeletons dating from around 3,800 years ago.
15th century BCE 
1500 BCEEarly Vedic Period (to 1000 BCE)
13th century BCE 
1300 BCECemetery H culture comes to an end
12th century BCE 
1200 BCERigveda (to 1000 BCE)
10th century BCE 
1000 BCEMiddle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BCE)
Iron Age India
1000 – 300 BCEKanchi district, gold mine of Megalithic sites in Tamil Nadu, South India 
Iron Age kingdoms rule India— Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.
9th century BCE 
877 BCEBirth of Parsvanatha, 23rd Jain Tirthankara (traditional date)
7th century BCE 
700 BCEThe Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.
6th century BCE 
600 BCESixteen Maha Janapadas (“Great Realms” or “Great Kingdoms”) emerge.
Vedic period ends.
The capital of the Early Pandyan Kingdom was initially Korkai, all around 600 BCE, and was later moved to Koodal (now Madurai) during the reign of Nedunjeliyan I.
599 BCEMahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born (traditional date).
563 BCESiddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini into a leading royal family in the republic of the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
543 BCEThe Vanga-based Prince Vijaya (c. 543 BCE) married a daughter of the Pandyan king of Madurai, to whom he was sending rich presents every year. Sinhala chronicle Mahawamsa mentions this event 
538 BCECyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire reached up to northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, today’s Afghanistan, which later proved to be his nemesis and caused his death.
527 BCENirvana of Mahavira
5th century BCE 
483 BCEProposed Mahaparinirvana date of Gautama Buddha at Kushinagar.
4th century BCE 
400 BCESiddharta Gautama ‘Buddha’ of the Shakya polity in S. Nepal, founds Buddhism (older date: 563–483 BCE)
350 BCEPanini, a resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text Ashtadhyayi. Panini’s standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.
333 BCEPersian rule in the northwest ends after Darius 3 is defeated by Alexander the Great, who establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
326 BCEAmbhi king of Takshila surrenders to Alexander.
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
321 BCEMauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar)
305 BCEChandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
304 BCESeleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
3rd century BCE 
273 BCEAshoka the Great regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor, grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
266 BCEAshoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with most of Afghanistan and Balochistan.
265 BCEKalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he has done, leading him to adopt Buddhism, which then becomes the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
261 BCEConquest of Kalinga
260 BCEAshoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script. The Edicts describe his Buddhist religious views and his commitment to the welfare of his subjects.
232 BCEAshoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala.
230 BCESimuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.
2nd century BCE 
200 BCEKuninda Kingdom is established.
Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE). (to 100 BC)
184 BCEThe Mauryan Empire, declines
1st century BCE 
65 BCEThe Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
58 BCEBeginning of Vikram Era
1st century  
35Western Satraps formed.
68Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.
78Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar after defeating Scythian king Maues.
100 or afterSugar was first produced from sugarcane plants in northern India sometime after the first century. 
3rd century 
240Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Pataliputra
4th century 
320Chandragupta I ascends the Gupta throne.
335Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
345Kadamba Kingdom established by Mayurasharma, Banavasi as its capital and they were the first kingdom to use Kannada in administration.
375Vakataka Empire in the Deccan
380Chandragupta II, Samudragupta’s son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
413Kumaragupta I, Adopted the title of Mahendraditya.
455Skandagupta, Faced Hunas effectively.
5th century 
467Invasions by the Huna.
Pallavas became a major power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571 – 630 CE)
6th century 
554Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Vishnugupta.
7th century 
606Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
637Badami Chalukya power at its peak. Pulakeshin II pushes north up to the Narmada and defeats the invading Harshavardhana of Kanauj
8th century 
700According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the immigrants Parsi are granted permission to stay by the local ruler Jadi Rana
711First Muslim, Muhammad Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir, king of Sindh Region in modern-day Pakistan
736Delhi is re-established by Bilan Deo Tomar also known as Anangpal Tomar
753Establishment of Rashtrakuta Kingdom of Manyakhet by Danti Durga by defeating Chalukyas of Badami
788Birth of Adi Shankaracharya
9th century 
814Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta emperor. Kannada literature flourishes.
836Gurjara-Pratihara (to 910)
10th century 
985Rajaraja Chola ascends to the throne of Chola empire. He expands the empire to Sri Lanka and to the north to include Kalinga kingdom
1000Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni
11th century  
1014Rajendra Chola I became the king of Chola empire after his father Rajaraja Chola. During his reign, he extended the influences of the already vast Chola empire up to the banks of the river Ganges in the north and across the ocean. Rajendra’s territories extended coastal Burma, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Maldives, conquered the kings of Srivijaya (Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula in South East Asia) and Pegu islands with his fleet of ships. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital called Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The Cholas became one of the most powerful dynasties in Asia during his reign. The Tamil Chola armies exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. Rajendra Chola I was the first Indian king to take his armies overseas and make conquests of these territories, even though there is epigraphical evidence of Pallava presence in these very areas.
1017Sri Ramanujacharya is born at Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu.
1021Mahmud Ghazni defeats Tarnochalpal and annexes Punjab
1025Last invasion of Mahmud Ghazni, sacked and destroyed temple of Somnath
1030Alberuni arrives in India; death of Mahmud of Ghazni
1058Sumra Dynasty ends the Arab domination and establishes its own rule over Sindh.
12th century 
1120Kalyani Chalukyas power at its peak. Vikramaditya VI ushers in Vikrama Chalukya era.
1134Life of Basaveshwara, philosopher and social reformer. (to 1196)
1157The Kalachuris of Kalyani under Bijjala II capture Kalyani
1175Muhammad of Ghor invades India. 
1191“Victory of Prithviraj Chauhan”. First Battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and Prithviraj III. Ghori is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
1192“Victory of Muhammed Ghori”. Second Battle of Tarain fought between Ghori and Prithivi Raj Chauhan III. Prithvi Raj Chauhan III is defeated by Mohammed Ghori.
1194Battle of Chandawar fought between Muhammad of Ghor and Jaichand of Kannauj. Ghori defeated Jayachandra and killed him.
13th century 
1206Khukhrain kill Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River
1206Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes slave Dynasty later to be known as Delhi Sultanate
1210Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo.
1210Shams ud-Din Iltutmish was the third ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, belonging to the Mamluk dynasty (Slave Dynasty). He introduced IQTA (Tax, revenue) system. Died in 1236
1221Genghis Khan invades Punjab during rule of Iltutmish
1236Rule of Razia Sultana – Daughter of Iltutmish.
1238Sri Madhwacharya born in Pajaka near Udupi, Karnataka
1240Murder of Razia Sultan by Turkish nobles.(Chalisa)
1246–66Rule of Nasiruddin Mahmud with support of Balban (Wazir and powerful member of Chalisa). Chalisa- a council of 40 members
1266–1286Rule of Balban; Chalisa wiped out.
1267The Mahanubhava philosophy established by Chakradhar Swami.
1275Birth of saint Dnyaneshwar.
1290Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad by Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji, an army commander.
1290–96Jalal-ud-din Khilji. Founder of Khiliji Dynasty
14th century 
1309Alauddin Khalji sends Malik Kafur to South. Malik Kafur Lays siege on the Kakatiya Capital Warangal and Extracts Tribute. The diamond Kohinoor was among the loot collected.
1310Ala-ud-din Khilji’s army under Malik Kafur occupies Devagiri ending the Seuna Yadava Kingdom
1311Malik Kafur attacks the Hoyasalas. In the aftermath of the destruction Hoyasalas abandon the old capital Halebidu. He later attacks Madurai. The attacks on Warangal, Halebidu and Madurai is accompanied by wide scale killing, destruction of temples and repatriation of wealth back to Delhi.
1323Ulugh Khan defeats Prataparudra II ending the Kakatiya dynasty
1336Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I
1340Birth of great mathematician Madhava of Sangamagrama.
1343Veera Ballala III was killed at the Battle of Madurai.
1347Governor Hasan Gangu revolts against Muhammad bin Tughluq founding the Bahmani Sultanate
1351Samma Dynasty assumes rule over Sindh
1370Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil speaking parts.
1398Timur plunders Lahore
1398Shri Guru Ravidas Ji was born in 1398 in Varanasi. He was an Indian mystic poet-sant of the Bhakti movement during the 15th to 16th century CE. Venerated as a guru in the region of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, the devotional songs of Ravidas have had a lasting impact upon the bhakti movement. Wikipedia
15th century 
1401Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India
1407Zafar Khan: governor of Gujarat, declares himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah founding the Gujarat Sultanate/Muzaffarid dynasty
1414Khizr Khan, deputized by Timur to be the governor of Multan takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty
1424Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire
1443Abdur Razzaq visits India
1446Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II
1449Sankardev, founder of Ekasarana Dharma was born in Nagaon, Assam.
1451Bahlul Khan Lodhi ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty
1469Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism is born
1483Birth of Babur in Andijan, Fergana Valley in Central Asia
1485Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty
1486Advent of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and leader of the world’s first civil disobedience movement, in Navadwip, West Bengal
1490Ahmadnagar declares independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year thus breaking up the Bahmani Sultanate.
1494Babur becomes the King
1498Vasco de Gama’s first voyage from Europe to India and back (to 1499)
16th century 
1503Kingdom of Cochin is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in India.
1508The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War
1509Battle of Diu marks the beginning of the dominance of the Europeans in the Asian naval theater.
1510Portuguese India (to 1961)
1522Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast
1526Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the Battle of Panipat.
1527Babur bribes Mewar general Silhadi promising Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar King Rana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
1530Babur  completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history, geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries. Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
1539Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated.
Guru Angad Dev becomes second guru of Sikhs.
1540Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and passed 12 years in exile.
Birth of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar ( son of Maharana Udai Singh II )
Death of Shri Guru Ravidas Ji
1545Death of Sher Shah Suri and succeeded by Islam Shah Suri.
1552Guru Amar Das becomes third Guru of Sikhs.
1554Death of Islam Shah Suri.
1555Humayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.
1556Humayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia. Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.
Hindu king Hemu establishes ‘Hindu Raj’ in North India and bestowed with title of “Vikramaditya”; Second Battle of Panipat fought between Hemu and Akbar’s forces in which Hemu is killed.
1565Battle of Talikota results in the rout of Vijayanagara empire.
1572Akbar annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri where a new township and citadel containing buildings of a unique all-India character—inspired by the architecture of Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Kashmir as well as the Timurid world—is born.
1574Guru Ram Das becomes fourth Guru of Sikhs.
Akbar annexes Bengal.
1581Guru Arjan Dev becomes fifth Guru of Sikhs.
1586Akbar annexes Kashmir.
1600East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.
17th century 
1605Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jahangir.
1606Guru Hargobind becomes sixth guru of Sikhs.
1612British India (to 1947)
East India Company (to 1857 – Indian Rebellion of 1857, Meerut)
1627Birth of Shivaji.
1628Jahangir announces “Chain of Justice” outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get a personal hearing with the emperor. Jahangir dies, and is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan.
1644Guru Har Rai becomes seventh guru of Sikhs
Shivaji takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.
1658Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan put under house arrest, and is succeeded by his son Aurangzeb.
1659Shivaji’s ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat numerically much larger Adilshahi troops at the Battle of Pratapgarh marking the first victory of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander Afzal Khan (general).
1661Guru Har Krishan becomes eight guru of Sikhs.
1665Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes ninth Guru of Sikhs.
1665Treaty of Purandar (1665) (or पुरंदर चा तह) was signed on 11 June 1665, between the Rajput ruler Jai Singh I
1674Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb’s troops, and establishes Maratha Empire.
1675Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi by the order of Aurangzeb for his support for the Kashmiri Hindus to practice their religion.Guru Gobind Singh becomes tenth Guru of Sikhs.
1680Shivaji dies of fever at Raigad.
Sambhaji becomes 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
1681Aurangzeb invades the Deccan
1689Sambhaji dies.
1696Danish India (to 1869)
1699Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs creates Khalsa, the saint-soldier at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab.
1700Rajaram I dies
18th century 
1705Mughal army arrested for the act. 
1707Death of Aurangzeb the mughal monarch.
1708Guru Granth Sahib becomes Guru of Sikhs.
1721Attingal Outbreak takes place
Madras cyclone occurs
1720Bajirao I appointed by Shahu Maharaj as Peshwa(prime minister) who later will expand the Maratha empire .
1756Black Hole of Calcutta infamous incident where soldiers of East India Company were held hostage in tortuous conditions, later served as a precedent for the Battle of Plassey
1757Battle of Plassey
Company rule in India (to 1858)
1758Third carnatic war
1759French India (to 1954)
1760Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam.
Maratha Empire reaches its zenith.
1760Battle at Wandewash, British troops beat French
1761The Marathas are routed in the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761, by the Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century.
1764Battle of Buxar (British victory against allied Mughal, Bengal and Oudh forces)
1765Princely states (to 15 August 1947)
1767First Anglo-Mysore War begins, in which Hyder Ali of Mysore defeats the armies of the British East India Company.
1771Marathas re-captures Delhi and parts of North India.
1772Ram Mohan Roy Born (to 1833)
1773Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao’s wife in front of Raghunathrao.
Regulating Act of 1773
Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of Bengal
1774Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew.
1775First Anglo-Maratha War
1779Maratha sardar Mahadji Shinde routs the East India Company army at the Battle of Wadgaon War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
1780Second Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1784Second Anglo-Mysore War ends with the Treaty of Mangalore.
1786District collectors in Bengal were made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it.
1789Third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1790The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and Mughals at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence
1792Third Anglo-Mysore War ends.
1795Death of Ahilyabai Holkar
1796Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur’s capital to Kangla
1798Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1799Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan, the victory of the East India Company, and the restoration of their ally, the Wodeyar dynasty of Mysore.
Polygar War
1800Death of Nana Fadnavis
19th century 
1801Maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes Khalsa rule of Punjab from Lahore. Khalsa army liberates Kashmiri Pundits and invades Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass.
1803The Second Anglo-Maratha War begins.
1805The Second Anglo-Maratha War ends.
1806Vellore Mutiny
1809The East India Company signs the first Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh.
1811The death of Yashwantrao Holkar
1814“Atmiya Sabha” is established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
1817The Third Anglo-Maratha War begins.
Establishment of Hindu College (Presidency College, now Presidency University, Kolkata)
1818The Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha Empire, leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India.
1820Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is born (to 1891).
1823Anglo–Burmese Wars (to 1826)
1824Dayananda Saraswati is born (to 1883)
1826British rule in Burma (to 1947)
1827Jyotirao Phule is born (to 1890)
1828Rani of Jhansi Laxmi bai was born (to 1858)
1829Kol uprising
1836Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa is born (to 1886)
1839First Anglo-Afghan War
1845First Anglo-Sikh Wars (to 1849)
Vasudev Balwant Phadke is born (to 1883)
1853The Post Service started.
1853The first railway is established between Bombay and Thane.
1855Santhal rebellion
1856Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act, 1856
Bal Gangadhar Tilak is born (to 1920)
Narayana Guru is born (to 1928)
1857British victory in Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed by British East India Company and India transferred to British Crown.
India’s first three universities, the University of Mumbai, the University of Madras and the University of Calcutta, are established.
1858Rani of Jhansi, Rani Lakshmibai died
British Raj (to 1947)
Bipin Chandra Pal is born (to 1932)
1859Death of Tatya Tope
1861Rabindranath Tagore is born.
1862The high courts of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay are established. 
1863Swami Vivekanand is born (to 1902)
1865Lala Lajpat Rai is born (to 1928)
1867“Prarthana Samaj” established earlier known as “Atmiya Sabha”, “Tahzeeb-ul-Akhlaq” was started
1869Mahatma Gandhi is born (to 30 January 1948)
Thakkar Bapa is born (to 1951)
1873Jyotirao Phule establishes the “Satyashodhak Samaj” society.
1875“Arya Samaj” is established.
Aligarh Muslim University
Deccan Riots
1876Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born (1876–1948)
1877The first Delhi Durbar
1883Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati die
1885The Indian National Congress is established 
1889Jawaharlal Nehru is born (to 1964).
1889Khudiram Bose is born (to 1908).
1891B. R. Ambedkar is born (to 1956).
1891Anglo-Manipur War.
1895jiddu krishnamurti is born (to 17 February 1986).
1897Subhas Chandra Bose is born (to 1945); the first fingerprint bureau of India is established in Calcutta.
1899“Mitra Mela” is established by V.D. Savarkar.plague commissionchapekar brother {assassination of w.c.Rand}
20th Century 
1902Anushilan Samiti, revolutionary association formed.
1903British Expedition to Tibet
Delhi Durbar Second Time.
1904University Act
1905Partition of Bengal
1906Jugantar formed.
Muslim League formed in Dacca.
1907Surat Split
1908Alipore bomb case
1909Morley-Minto Reforms
1911Cancellation of Partition of Bengal
Delhi Durbar Third Time
1911The British government moves the capital from Calcutta to Delhi. 
1912Delhi conspiracy case
1913Gadar Party formed.
Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in Literature
1914Hindu–German Conspiracy
1915Ghadar conspiracy
Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul.
Mahatma Gandhi returns to India.
1916Lucknow Pact
1917Champaran Satyagraha
1918Kheda Satyagraha
1919Jallianwala Bagh massacre
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
Rowlatt Act is passed
1920Non-cooperation movement Khilafat Movement
1922Chauri Chaura incident
1924The Hindustan Socialist Republican Association is formed.
1925Kakori conspiracy
1927Mahad Satyagraha
Simon Commission
1928Bardoli Satyagraha
1929Central Assembly bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
Purna Swaraj resolution.
1930Salt Satyagraha, the civil disobedience movement, begins with the Dandi march.
The first Round Table Conferences (India)
1931Gandhi–Irwin Pact
Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev martyred
The second Round Table Conferences (India)
1932Poona Pact
Communal Award
The third Round Table Conferences (India)
1935Government of India Act 1935
19371937 Indian provincial elections
1939The All India Forward Bloc established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1940Lahore Resolution
August offer 1940
1942Cripps’ mission
1. Quit India movement
2. The Indian National Army is established by Subhas Chandra Bose.
1943Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India is formed by Netaji.
1944Subhas Chandra Bose calls Mahatma Gandhi the Father of the Nation.
1945Subhas Chandra Bose death in plane crash at Taiwan.
Wavell Plan, Simla Conference
1946Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
Cabinet Mission
Direct Action Day/Great Calcutta Killings
1947Indian Independence Act 1947 by British Raj
Partition of India and Pakistan becomes an independent state on 14 August 1947. 
Freedom from British Raj.
Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition, continuing to 1948.
1948Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Godse.
War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir.
Telangana and other princely states are integrated into Indian union.
1950India became a republic.
1951Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru (to 1952).
1955Nationalisation of the Indian insurance sector. Establishment of LIC.
1956B. R. Ambedkar converted to Buddhism along with 600,000 followers.
B. R. Ambedkar died.
1962War over disputed territory of Kashmir  with China.
India seizes Diu, Daman and Goa from Portuguese India.
1964Death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
1965Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
1966Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri’s mysterious death in Thashkant.
1966Nehru’s daughter Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister.
1969Nationalisation of 14 major private Banks.
1971Third war with Pakistan over creation of Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan.
Twenty-year treaty of friendship signed with Soviet Union.
1974India Smiling Buddha first nuclear device in underground test.
1975Indira Gandhi declares a state of emergency after being found guilty of electoral malpractice.
Nearly 1,000 political opponents imprisoned and programme of compulsory birth control introduced. (to 1977)
1977Indira Gandhi’s Congress Party loses general elections. Janata Party comes to power. The Communist party of India comes into power in West Bengal.
1979The Janata Party splits. Chaudhary Charan Singh becomes Prime Minister.
1980Indira Gandhi returns to power heading the Congress party splinter group, Congress (Indira).
1983N. T. Rama Rao NTR’s nine-month-old Telugu Desam assumes power in AP becoming a challenger post Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan against Indira Gandhi.
1983India won World Cup for the first time, in one day international Cricket led by Kapil Dev.
1984Troops storm Golden Temple, the Sikhs’ most holy shrine, after Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale seeks refuge inside. There are a movement to flush out Sikh separatism and calls for secularism, called Operation Blue Star. “Anti-Sikh Riots 1984”.
Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards; her son, Rajiv, takes over.
Many Sikhs were killed due to the assassination of Indira Gandhi. see 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
1987India deploys troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka’s ethnic conflict.
1988SEBI was established by The Government of India on 12 April 1988 and given statutory powers in 1992 with SEBI Act 1992 being passed by the Indian Parliament.
1989Falling public support leads to a Congress defeat in general election.
1989The National Front (India), headed by V. P. Singh and led by Janata Dal, is formed and storms into power with outside support from BJP and CPI.
1990Muslim separatist groups begin campaign of violence in Kashmir.
1991Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated by a suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri Lanka’s Tamil Tigers.
An economic reform programme is begun by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao.
1992Babri Mosque in Ayodhya is demolished, triggering widespread Hindu-Muslim violence.
Over 200 people die in Cuttack in Odisha, after drinking illegally brewed liquor in the 1992 Odisha liquor deaths incident.
1995West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu made the first call from Kolkata to inaugurate the cellular services in India.
1996Congress suffers its worst electoral defeat ever as BJP emerges as the largest single party.
1996The Amarnath Yatra tragedy in which at least 194 pilgrims are reported to have frozen to death in northern Kashmir after being stranded by violent rain and snow storms.
1998BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
India and Pakistan carry out nuclear tests, leading to widespread international condemnation.
1999Vajpayee makes a historic bus trip to Pakistan to meet Premier Nawaz Sharif and to sign bilateral Lahore peace declaration.
Tension in Kashmir leads to a brief war with Pakistan-backed forces in the icy heights around Kargil in Indian-administered Kashmir.
The Cyclone devastates eastern state of Odisha, leaving at least 10,000 dead.
2000US President Bill Clinton makes a groundbreaking visit to improve ties.
India marks the birth of its billionth citizen.
The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh & Uttranchal (Uttrakhand) were created on 15 November 2000.
21st century  
YearEvent |
2001The 7.7 Mw  Gujarat earthquake shakes Western India with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme), leaving 13,805–20,023 dead and about 166,800 injured.
Vajpayee meets Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf in the first summit between the two neighbours in more than two years. The meeting ends without a breakthrough or even a joint statement because of differences over Kashmir.
Vajpayee’s BJP party declines his offer to resign over a number of political scandals and the apparent failure of his talks with Pakistani President Musharraf.
US lifts sanctions which it imposed against India and Pakistan after they staged nuclear tests in 1998. The move is seen as a reward for their support for the US-led anti-terror campaign.
India and Pakistan fire at each other’s military posts in the heaviest firing along the dividing line of control in Kashmir for almost a year. 
Pakistani forces shelled the village of Arnia about three km (two miles) from the border in the early hours of Monday 6 June, killing five and wounding at least two dozen civilians. 
Suicide squad attacks parliament in New Delhi, killing several police. The five gunmen die in the assault.
India imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir militant groups blamed for the suicide attack on parliament. Pakistan retaliates with similar sanctions, and bans the groups in January.
India, Pakistan mass troops on common border amid mounting fears of a looming war.
2002War of words between Indian and Pakistani leaders intensifies. Actual war seems imminent.
India successfully test-fires a nuclear-capable ballistic missile – the Agni – off its eastern coast.
Inter-religious bloodshed breaks out after 59 Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya are killed in a train fire in Godhra, Gujarat. More than 1,000 people, die in subsequent riots. (Police and officials blamed the fire on a Muslim mob; a 2005 government investigation said it was an accident, though later court and SIT report held Muslim mob responsible.)
Pakistan test-fires three medium-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles, which are capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
UK, US urge their citizens to leave India and Pakistan, while maintaining diplomatic offensive to avert war.
Retired scientist and architect of India’s missile programme A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is elected president.
2003At least 50 people are killed in two simultaneous bomb blasts in Bombay.
India matches Pakistan’s declaration of a Kashmir ceasefire.
India, Pakistan agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights.
2004Groundbreaking meeting is held between government and moderate Kashmir separatists.
Surprise victory for Congress Party in general elections. Manmohan Singh is sworn in as prime minister.
India, along with Brazil, Germany and Japan, launches an application for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
India begins to withdraw some of its troops from Kashmir.
Thousands are killed when tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake off the Indonesian coast, devastate coastal communities in the south and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
2005More than 1,000 people are killed in floods and landslides caused by monsoon rains in Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra region.
The 7.6 Mw  Kashmir earthquake strikes with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), leaving 86,000–87,351 people dead, 69,000–75,266 injured, and 2.8 million homeless.
2006India’s largest-ever rural jobs scheme is launched, aimed at lifting around 60 million families out of poverty.
US and India sign a nuclear agreement during a visit by US President George W. Bush. The US gives India access to civilian nuclear technology while India agrees to greater scrutiny for its nuclear programme.
2007India and Pakistan sign an agreement aimed at reducing the risk of accidental nuclear war.
68 passengers, most of them Pakistanis, are killed by bomb blasts and a blaze on a train travelling from New Delhi to the Pakistani city of Lahore.
Maoist rebels in Chhattisgarh state kill more than 50 policemen in a dawn attack.
India’s first commercial space rocket is launched, carrying an Italian satellite.
Government announces its strongest economic growth figures for 20 years – 9.4% in the year to March.
At least nine people are killed in a bomb explosion at the main mosque in Hyderabad. Several others are killed in subsequent rioting.
India says the number of its people with HIV or AIDS is about half of earlier official tallies. Health ministry figures put the total at between 2 million and 3.1 million cases, compared with previous estimates of more than 5 million.
Pratibha Patil becomes first woman to be elected president of India.
2008Series of explosions kills 49 in Ahmedabad, in Gujarat state. The little-known terrorist group Indian Mujahideen claims responsibility.
Following approval by the US Congress, President George W. Bush signs into law a nuclear deal with India, which ends a three-decade ban on US nuclear trade with Delhi.
India successfully launches its first mission to the moon, the unmanned lunar probe Chandrayaan-1.
The 2008 Mumbai attacks (often called the 26/11 attacks) kill 174 people, including 9 of the 10 terrorists from Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan. India decides not to attack Pakistan in retaliation.
India announces “pause” in peace process with Pakistan. Indian cricket team cancels planned tour of Pakistan.
2009India and Russia sign deals worth $700 million, according to which Moscow will supply Uranium to Delhi.
Resounding general election victory gives governing Congress-led alliance of PM Manmohan Singh an enhanced position in parliament, only 11 seats short of an absolute majority.
Delhi court decriminalizes gay sex
201016 people are killed in a bomb explosion at German Bakery in the city of Pune, Maharashtra.
2011India wins cricket world cup after 28 years under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni.
After 34 years of Left Front Government, Trinamool Congress and Congress alliance come to power in West Bengal.
2012Pranab Mukherjee, the former Finance Minister is elected as the 13th president of India.
2013Indian helicopter bribery scandal comes to light.
Terror attacks in Hyderabad in Dilsukhnagar area.
Mars Orbiter Mission, is successfully launched into Mars orbit by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).   
2014Narendra Modi elected as prime minister of India, Congress was routed in the general elections.
Telangana, The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014.
2016Terror Attacks on Pathankot Air Base. 
India becomes a member of Missile Technology Control Regime.
India launches its first space laboratory Astrosat in its biggest project since its Mars orbiter mission in 2014.
India signs a billion-dollar defence deal with France to buy 36 Rafale fighter jets.
In a surprise announcement, the government withdraws high denomination notes from circulation causing chaotic scenes at banks across the country as customers try to exchange old notes.
2017The Goods and Services Tax (GST) launched, the biggest tax reform in history of India.
A convoy of vehicles carrying Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel on the Jammu Srinagar National Highway was attacked by a vehicle-borne suicide bomber in the Pulwama district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
The 2019 Balakot airstrike was conducted by India, when Indian warplanes crossed the de facto border in the disputed region of Kashmir, and dropped bombs in the vicinity of the town of Balakot in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.
The 2019 Balakot strike from Indian side was given a reply named “Swift Retort”.After a dog fight between Pakistani and Indian Fighter Pilots. Indian Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman was captured by the Pakistani side. However acting to the pressure of various global leaders and bound by the Vienna Convention . Pakistan was Forced to release the Indian Pilot with all due respect.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir was divided into two separate union territories known as Jammu Kashmir and Ladakh by Scrapping Article 370 of Indian constitution.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Act, 2019 was passed by the Parliament of India on 11 December 2019. It amended the Citizenship Act of 1955 by providing a path to Indian citizenship for members of Hindu, Sikh, Buddhiist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian religious minorities, who had fled persecution from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan before December 2014.
2020The first ever COVID-19 case of the country was reported in Kerala’s Thrissur district.